A wiring harness is an organized set of wires, terminals and connectors that run throughout the entire vehicle and relay information and electric power, thereby playing a critical role in “connecting” a variety of components. Wiring harness is an important basic concept in traffic theory. Power and information travel through this network much like the circulatory and central nervous systems of the human body. As cars continue to provide advanced functions, their component parts increasingly require electronics to save space and meet other requirements.
Commonly used in automobiles, as well as Telecommunication, machinery, new energy and smart home, wire harnesses provide several advantages over loose wires and cables. For example, many automobiles and spacecraft contain many masses of wires which would stretch over several kilometers if fully extended. By binding the many wires and cables into a cable harness, the wires and cables can be better secured against the adverse effects of vibrations, abrasions, and moisture. By constricting the wires into a non-flexing bundle, usage of space is optimized, and the risk of a short is decreased. Since the installer has only one harness to install (as opposed to multiple wires), installation time is decreased and the process can be easily standardized. Binding the wires into a flame-retardant sleeve also lowers the risk of electrical fires.
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Terminal material (copper) use of copper are brass and bronze main (brass slightly lower than the hardness of bronze), including larger in proportion of brass. In addition, we can choose different according to different requirements of coating.
Sheath material (plastic) commonly used main material of PA6, PA66, ABS, PBT, PP, etc. According to the actual situation in adding flame retardant plastic or reinforced material, in order to achieve the enhancement purpose to the or flame retardant, such as adding glass fiber reinforced, etc.
Wire wound wear-resisting, flame retardant, corrosion resistance, prevent interference, reduce noise, beautify the appearance, general choose bandaging material according to the work environment and space size. On the choice of dressing materials usually have tape, corrugated pipe, PVC pipe etc.
Molded material use of virgin PVC and PP, or PUR and PU imported from Germany with good seal and hardness.
Automotive line common faults are: plug contact undesirable, wires between short circuit, open circuit, iron, etc.
The reason has the following several aspects:
1. Natural factor
When the lifetime of wiring harness is over-long and aging, its insulation layer is damaged, mechanical strength is substandard which leads to short circuit, broken circuit or ground fault, wire harness would be burned.
In many cases, electrical equipment cannot work due to poor contact of wire harness which mainly was oxidized or distorted.
2. Equipment failure
The failure of electrical equipment can easily cause damage to the wire harness.
The common failures include short circuit and broken circuit.
3. Human factor
When assembling or overhauling auto parts, metal parts may scratch wire harness and damage the insulation layer;
Wrong position and connection of wire harness;
Positive and negative battery leads are reversed;
During the overhauling of failure circuit, if connecting or cutting the wires random, it may damage the equipment and burn the whole wire harness.
Currently the wire harness technology development trends are mainly in following directions:
1. Multi-channels transmission: The transmission of multiple signals on a common medium, then the electronic controller can share information to avoid single wiring. This new technology application will simplify the wiring harness and compact its structure and reduce the weight, also reduce the cost. As the information is widely shared rather than a simple copy, the diagnosis of failure is more accurate, engineering changes are more rapid, defect reparation is more convenient.
2. Multi-station connection: The internal connection system which can connect multiple smart devices. It can share not only battery power with firm grounded, but also data which greatly reduces the module's input and output, simplify the modules and wire harness assembling. The cost will be significantly reduced due to the less docking points and production cycle.
3. Electronic and electric integration: An electronic and electrical hybrid central box is used in new automobiles. Electrically it works as an equivalent small electric substation which can distribute the battery energy to various circuits as required. Electronically it works as a small data processing center which can process and send a variety of signals.